General Awareness,  Shouting Facts,  Travel and Places

6 Amazing Geological Formations in India


Naturally formed caves below the ground level that are huge and sometimes have a stream or a lake of water.

Top left – Borra cave, right- Belum cave, bottom left – Krem Liat Prah, Yana Roack and caves, Kotumsar cave

Here To Be Found In India : Borra caves, Ananthgiri Hills; Krem Liat Prah, Meghalaya; Belum caves, Andhra Pradesh; Kotumsar Caves, Chattisgarh; Edakkal caves, Kerela; Yana Rocks and caves, Karnataka.

Formation : We all know that water from rains or from different sources (rivers, lakes, streams etc) drains down into the ground into deeper rock layers. Sometimes because of heavy rainfalls or water loads, the surface and subsurface softer rocks like limestone, dolomite, marble and gypsum erodes down and forms considerably larger sink holes. The water enters through the sink holes and makes its way to various depths underground. Through thousands and millions of years the stagnant water becomes acidic which then reacts with the rock materials and cuts its way through various types of rocks to finally finding their way outside to the world in the form of stream or waterfall.


Naturally carved holes and potholes on rocks alongside a river.

Left- Nighoj, right- Ken riverbed potholes

Here To Be Found In India: Nighoj, Maharashtra; Ken river beds, Madhya Pradesh

Formation : These formations are created by fast flowing river waters. The initiative force for creating a pothole is the down cutting force of a current. Sometimes the current experiences a diverted flow due to a large rock or deposits or any bedload. The downcutting current hence produced creates depressions in that particular area where it drops. The depression created then catches pebbles or stones which drill down the depression making a hole. And with the due course of time, the mother nature creates these marvels.



A phenomenal arch of rocks balanced like a welcoming gate created by mysterious forces of nature.

Natural Rock Arch, Tirumala Hills

Here To Be Found In India : Natural Arch, Tirumala Hills, Andhra Pradesh.

Formation : The rocks that make up the arches are hard metamorphic rocks and the empty space underneath it had once softer sandstonic or limestonic rocks. With the expanse of time and the harsh action of strong winds, the softer underneath rocks get eroded away leaving behind the harder ones creating a beautiful arch or a gateway that welcomes its guests.


Beautiful loops, bends and curves of a river that looks like a giant snake crawling through a valley, with crescent moon shaped lakes located on the far edges of the curves like an inverted comma.

A meander ready to become an Ox-Bow, Kanwar Bird Sanctuary, Bihar

Here To Be Found In India : Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary, Bihar.

Formation : You must have learnt about these formations in your high schools. So, I’m going to quickly review the basic formation facts for the meanders and the Ox-Bow. Meanders are formed when a fast flowing river cuts the edges of its bank slowly, gradually shifting its course towards those edges and forming concave shapes. Generally Meanders form in sediment valleys where the shore line is easily erodable. With time the concaves become more curved that eventually its neck starts cutting off from the main flow. And when a flood encounters, the flow of the river becomes straight, cutting off the neck and creating curved ox-bow.


Beautiful ridges formed on a high mountain giving an impression of a giant termite mound.

A Yardang in Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Here To Be Found In India : Cold deserts of Spiti, Himachal Pradesh; Leh-Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir.

Formation : Both the Yardangs and the Zeugens are almost same when seen from above surface and one can observe a ridged landform; the only difference between two being the locations of the rocks beneath the surface of their formation. So, the ridges are formed on sandstones or sediment layers from which sand get eroded by strong unidirectional winds rubbing the fine sand particles with the surface of the upland and giving them a shape that astounds the viewers.


A river surrounded by gorge and cliffs, astoundingly beautiful as if someone had painted them with alternating colours.

Raneh Falls and Gandikota Canyons

Here To Be Found In India : Gandikota, Andhra Pradesh; Raneh falls, Madhya Pradesh; Hemis-Leh, J&K.

Formation : Canyons and gorges are created by the river that flows through it. For millions of years the river cut the rocks beneath it to reach to an elevation that is equal to its sink, revealing the different layers of rock sediments.

So, this was my list of 6 amazing and unique marvels of Mother Earth found in India. I’ll definitely update and expand this list and bring more marvels from the nature. I hope you liked this post.

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