The scarcity of water is an emerging global issue as the climatic patterns have shifted dramatically due to the impact of global warming. The water resources which were once full of the life giving liquid are now going dry. The severe water crises has engulfed almost every continent of the planet, especially those which already have arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. You can check one of my previous post discussing states in India which have gone water scarse.
The question is not about the situation as everybody is aware of the ever increasing water scarcity, but about the measures that could help the humankind to survive few more decades or centuries. Here, I’ll discuss few breakthrough technologies that can and are helping to reduce water crises.
5 Technologies for Combating Water Scarcity
Although there are various versions of desalination set up, but here I’ll discuss the one developed by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). The unit has many flat plate solar collectors with four trays containing saline water and a heat exchanger maintained in a closed loop. The saline water gets heated up and evaporated by solar heating, which then condenses down into pure drinkable water with the help of the heat exchanger. The water is pumped in and out with solar power driven pumps.
This technology is no doubt a boon for coastal areas with brackish waters and is capable of providing hundred litres of water per day.
2. Omni Processor
A patent of Janicki Bioenergy, the technology is actually a need for the hour. This technology recycles and uses the sewage waste to extract drinkable water! Yes, you heard it right. The sewage water (or the toilet waste including human faeces) are firstly fed into a processor then burnt, water is then separated from solid part and purified. The left ashes from the burning is used as a manure in the agricultural fields, also the steam coming during the processing is used as electricity for powering machines.
This technology is no doubt path breaking and the best thing about it is that it reuses the sewage waste which otherwise is a headache for the municipalities.
3. Water Seer
The water seer has a freely rotating turbine that moves as the wind blows. The air then passes to a condensation unit buried at around 6 ft below the earth surface, and gets condensed into water because of colder surroundings. The seer is efficient enough to harvest around 36 lt of water per day in a semi-arid condition.
4. Variable Electro Precipitator
The Electro precipitator works as an electro-coagulator that precipitates the impurities such as suspended particles, contaminants, and other waste with the help of electric current flowing through parallel plates. The plates are made up of iron or aluminium which forms metal oxides with impurities when the current is passed. The impurities are then separated and the final water is purified. Currently F&T Water Solutions has developed and got the patent to use this technology.
The company firstly analyses a sample of water for different types of impurities and chemical constituents, which is then treated and handled accordingly. This technology is adopted by various industries such as pulp and paper, tanneries, steel mills, slaughterhouses, sewage treatment and many others.
5. Fog Catcher
The technology is a form of water harvesting from the air. The basic idea behind the system is to capture and convert the gaseous form of dense water into a liquid one. Mesh nets are being used to retain the fog which then slowly condenses it to water collected in trays. This system is extensively used in Morocco, Peruvian Andes and other South American Hilly areas. The technology can efficiently harvest 6,300 lts of water per day. It has also got the UN’s Momentum for Change Award in the year 2016.
So, this was my list of 5 Technologies used to combat Water Scarcity. No doubt these technologies have been developed to tackle the water shortage problems but most of them are costly or under development or not easily available. So, there is a need to adopt few precautionary measures like reducing illicit wastage of water, spreading awareness around and adopting water harvesting structures and technologies in our households, which can help in fighting against the emerging monster.
Few small steps can contribute in making big difference around the world and it’s a moral duty of every being to care for the society.
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